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Integratrive Counselling

Integratrive Counselling

The Skilled Helper Approach


This paper is approximately integrative counselling employing the skilled helper strategy. In this paper we will talk about the theory and request of the integrative model of the competent helper and elements of person centred counselling and alternative focus therapy. We will look as of this integrative model and the huge benefits as well as the possible downsides. A research study will then be presented applying this integrative unit to counsel the client.


Integrative counselling looks at several approaches that have been combined and used within a therapeutic counselling romantic relationship. Coming away from an individual counselling approach and combining suited models of counselling, both the counsellor and client reap the benefits of the integrated version (Arkowitz, 1997). Robertson (1970) explained that his ‘radical eclecticism’ bypassed theory.

Introduction – Gerald Egan

Gerald Egan is professor of organisation analyses and psychology and program director for the centre for organisation creation (CORD) at the Loyola University of Chicago. Egan produced the skill helper model and in 1975 released the earliest edition of his book The Competent Helper , which demonstrateding an eclectic framework for a issue management method of the counselling process.

The Integrative Counsellor

There will be counsellors that see themselves as being eclectic in their job. It is viewed they are syncretism-using techniques from various models[RZ1]. Eclecticism – no or little theoretical rationale[RZ2]. Merely pulling approaches from many models without a sound rationale can only lead to syncretistic confusion (Lazarus, 1996, 1996; Lazarus, Beutler, & Norcrossk, 1992).

Development of Therapy

The three main influences on the expansion are the skills training approaches to counselling, the social impact theory, and behavioural theories of learning and switch. Egan sums his strategy up as ‘A conceptual framework…. to organise borrowed ideas, methods and approaches systematically … and to incorporate them into [ones] unique theory and practice of helping[RZ3].’.


The skilled helper style is normally a Tran theoretical approach to integration. Your client seeks counselling or assistance when they are experiencing troubles in coping with complications in his or hertheir lifeves. The Counsellor will see and act on answers to these problems. This is done by using a problem solving process. The procedure is demonstrated through the use of 3 three main phases which originally were titled Exploration, Understanding and Action, and which are right now renamed as Present Situation, Preferred Scenario and Receiving There[RZ4].

The Three Stage Model

The three stage unit consists of three guidelines within three phases. Egan describes this version as “A a cognitive map with practical potential, complex enough to make sense of simple fact and simple enough to use[RZ5]..

1 Present Scenario

The consumer is helped to spell it out and explore today’s Scenario[RZ6]’,

she is certainly going through at present

2The Preferred Scenario

Articulate a favored scenario which includes future goals

aAnd objectives.

3Getting There

Develop and implement action strategies forrom moving

from the current to favored scenario.

The Skilled Helper Model is integrative, going primarily through three stages:. Person centered, to determine the therapeutic relationship;, Gestalt, for extreme work on awareness; and behaviour remedy to focus on change. Egan says ‘do whatever is certainly ethical and works.’ (1990:62). (Robertson (1979) stated that his ‘radical eclecticism’ bypassed theory. The writer[RZ7] argues that theory can be obvious within the approach as it is influenced by solid theoretical approaches integrated into the skilled helper.

Dr Carl Rogers argues that “It may be the client who knows what is hurting and in the final analysis it’s the client who knows how to approach forewardords ... the counsellors job is to enable the client to get hold of his own inner assets rather than to guide, advise or in a few other approach influence the direction your client should consider …. Thus thus emphasising the central importance of the customer’s phenomenological globe”. (Mearns & Thorne, 1988, P1).

The three stage version is a systematic method of learning to use clients helping them to deal better with their life,. tTo manage their concerns in living better and develop unused possibilities more fully’, and also to ‘help persons become better at assisting themselves in their day-to-day lives.’ (Egan G., ‘The Competent Helper’, 1998, pp. 7-8). Using the approach counsellors are able to explore the customer’s emotions, thinking and behaviour.

In stages one and two, consumers are helped to explore and figure out themselves their feelings and their community better, and in a different light. In stage 3 three, clients happen to be helped to take successful action to attain constructive change.

Assumptions of the Model

Some counsellors start to see the skilled helper model to be standard counselling and a paradigm that is made more difficult than necessary. Egan is somewhat contrary about human nature[RZ8] ……..

Egan and Cowan 1979[RZ9]

Egan and Cowan 1979, 1980: Egan, 1984[RZ10]

The target of the qualified helper style is concentratesd on the client, with the aid of counsellor, in allowing the client to build up new skills of personal management, interpersonal connection, and decision making. The counsellor and client wWorking together on ways of bring about change, and they. examine Looking at what the customer would want to change or manage in a different way.

Psychological Health

The heart of the challenge solving process is the client’s action itself (Egan, (1975:227). This is achievable by enabling your client to tell his or her storey. The competent helper model is one that sees the probable of change to take place in clients (Inskipp, 1993:92), w. Where your client shi8fts their behaviour from unhealthy to healthy to juvinate[RZ11] positive change. Transformation comes about through action “The heart of the problem-solving method is the clients’ actions itself (Egan, 1975:2227[RZ12]). This is by way of the client letting go[RZ13].

Change begins to occur when the client is provided space to notify his or her their storey. In telling of the storey, the methods for change areis recognized and employed. Client The client is normally helped to reframe by witnessing the storyline and, situations in a different light, witnessing him or heerself as a survivor rather than a victim. However, simply Just wanting change to occur isn’t sufficient. The cClient must be active in the procedure for change by method of adapting his or her behaviour through action, reflection and different learning. “Constructive switch is always underneath line.” (Egan 1990:207).

Practice and clinical issues

The counsellor should be effective in the define vertical angles manner the approach is normally used. ‘Helpers happen to be successful to the amount that their clients – as a result of customer – helper interactions – will be in a much better position to manage specific problem scenarios and develop particular unused resources and options more effectively.” (Egan, 1998:7). The function of the counsellor is normally to assist the client in understanding his or hertheir storey and /problem, and help with skills to help their client in being powerful in the administration of particular challenging circumstances.

The gGoals of the counsellor in the partnership are to build and empathic alliance;, to assist;, identify;, support; and also to evaluate.

Counsellors make use of the Model

Understand and assurance of the 3 stage version with a willingness to adjust to accommodate the customers needs[RZ14]. Counsellor works with your client in the here and today. A few of the skills used would be their natural interior supervisor and , attending skills, through recognition and utilization of the mnemonic SOLAR (squarely, open, learn, eye, peaceful). For non verbal communication, using the style as a template for change, the counsellor worksing therapeutically at the clients tempo using assessment skills, identifying if the degree of problems experienced by the customer gets in the form of achieving change in disposition and relationships.

Making a agreement with client, focusses of the task, nature and rate of recurrence of get in touch with, confidentiality and possible restrictions of it, review and evaluation[RZ15]. Evaluation is ongoing through sessions as this can help identify what’s /or is not helpful through the session.

Use of skill through communication

The counsellor engages with your client attending[RZ16], active hearing, establishing and conveying empathy and the utilization of probes and questioning, immediacy, and suitable self disclosure to customer. Brain storming is certainly a cognitive method of helping client to look at new perspectives on scenarios. Brainstorming generates desire that this[RZ17] could be different – this can help client to go foreward into functioning creatively. The cCounsellor can engage with the customer using a assortment of distinct skills, such as . Prompting : what do you really wish for yourself in this example, miracle Miracle Ququestion – quick therapy, Blank wall structure topic for persuasive speech – visualisation – NLP (DeShezer, 1988; O’Connor and McDermott, 1996)0.

Goal setting and reviewing helps client to see hopes as goals that are SMART[RZ18], specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-limited.

Change Process

Egan takes his procedure for change from the behavioural

strategy (Wopolfe et al., 1989:11). Seeing behavioural modification over cognitive change[RZ19]. The counsellor uses empathy to form a strong working alliance with your client through the exploration of emotions. The exploration of thoughts plays the main portion in effecting for change to take place. Within an article about change showedOne resource identifies three3 brokers for change: stated affective experiencing, cognitive mastery and behavioural regulation (Karasu 1986:690). [RZ20] These three3 agents play a significant part in the qualified helper approach for switch to take place.

Nature of therapeutic relationship

Egan views that the therapeutic romantic relationship is instrumental in the counselling procedure. Working to achieve goals within specific time restrains the counsellor takes on the part of[RZ21] . ‘A relationship of assistance, not an result in itself’ (Egan 1990:57). Whereby Rogers argues that the therapeutic relationship is usually fundamental in the counselling process[RZ22].

As area of the skilled helper approach, Egan incorporated Rogers core circumstances. Egan describes himself as ‘standing on Rogers shoulders[RZ23],’ owing very much to him as the main conditions is a significant part of the approach. Rogers, on the additional hand, concentrates on the person as a whole human-being. There are lots of differences between your two techniques (see Table 9.1).

Format of a typical session

Each session is different as there are is certainly no place format. Tthe process will depend on where the client has been the process of change.

Indications and contraindications

This approach is comparable to the cognitive and behavioural methods. The model is only good for clients with slight to moderate conditions. The approaches concentrates itself onwith the client having the motivation to improve and test out thoughts and perceptions in a fresh framework.

The model can be utilized with most consumers and situations incorporating depression ()Mynors-Wallis et al., 1995; Sseeley et al., 1996), and working with young persons (Mabey and Sorensen, 1995).

The model is referred to as becoming eclectic (Inskipp and Johns, 1984).

Weakness of Model

The model can be iInflexible, not suitable for clientele with deep roouted complications, and there is little exploration to verify its efficacy[RZ24]. Although the challenge management programme is beneficial, it may need to be modified to match some cultures.

Obstacles to Integration

Within Tthe development and utilization of an integrative mode,l as opposed to an individual model, has got its drawbacks and possible pitfalls. Hastily combining counselling versions on a at whim merely because the models separately are pleasing will not necessarily not lend itself to necessarily come to be combined effective combinationly into a built-in model.

No one theory or version can testify that it ey holds athe patent off the truth. No-one single model or set of tactics have or can always be effective with diverse consumers. Nonetheless, tThere is definitely a current pattern, as the basis for future counselling practices; writers are developing integrative techniques (Lazarus, 1996[RZ25]).

Some models of counselling integration are The Skilled Helper Style, Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT) and the Conversational Model.

There are times, however (dependent on the client) when a single established integrative model may be used. For the intended purpose of this essay a good example of the Skilled Helper unit will be the key integrative model.

Case Study


This case study talks about the utilization of the skilled helper version with Lisa, a 16 year old college student on a twelve months foundation course. Her problem is that she finds herself a lot more angry. Weekly there can be an aggressive situation at college between Lisa and her peers or with users of the school staff. She has been officially warned twice and is certainly in great jeopardy of being thrown off her study course and out of university. Throughout a lot of her comprehensive school life she has been expelled from many schools because of her behaviour. It had been recommended by the Pupil Support Manager that Lisa attend some sessions of counselling to “obtain herself sorted out[RZ26]”. This is an option recommended to herim as an alternative to expelling her.expulsion.


“Helping romantic relationships are influenced by if the helper is a tuned counsellor or is applying counselling skills within performing another part. Helping human relationships takes place in the top and in the heart, in addition to face to face. Ultimately all helping romantic relationships need to become consumer self helping relationships.” (Nelson-Jones, 1999, P.118)

Stage one looks at the problems, issues, considerations, and undeveloped opportunities for Lisa.

Lisa agreed to go to counselling;, this is not a new experience for her. She experienced previously received counselling and anger supervision several times and explained, “Tthey don’t work..

Assessment and Contracting took place during the first program. Lisa was listened to, allowing her to inform her storey of what brought her to counselling and the lead up to it. Through the session, probing was utilized to discover that Lisa felt alone even though it appeared she had many friends. She was the leader of her girl gang. “Not real good friends, they don’t find out me. They’re simply with me because I fight for them. Some of them are bigger than me.. She sensed unloved by her mom because there is no discipline and they only encouragement given was on her behalf to stand up for herself. Her father has spent years in and out of prison. Lisa felt ugly and was frequently told that she wasso. She dressed in boys clothes and maintained her strawberry blond head of hair (which practically reached halfway down her back) guaranteed with an elastic band. She had an older sister who was simply 20, who had modified her faith and was preparing to marry within into a Muslim family. Lisa had two more youthful brothers that appeared to escape with ruling the household with their demands. Lisa proudly carried a tiny photograph around with her of her deceased sister, the only person she seriously felt cherished by, and the only one she loved. With an increase of gentle probing, it became obvious that her sister passed away as a baby 2 yrs before Lisa was born[RZ27]. Her overdue is spent getting together with her friends and at times purposely triggering trouble. She left university without formal qualifications, and subsequently was put on a foundation training which she found did not hold her interest as she received through her do the job quickly. and so Aas she could move foreward, Lisa identified she was assisting other pupils in the class with their work[RZ28].

Lisa is definitely asked “what do you really need for yourself in this example?” Brainstorming technique can be used to look at course and career choices. Lisa looks into the continuing future of how she would wish to be an accountant as she actually is very proficient at maths, or possibly an actress[RZ29]. In the past she had thought that an individual like her would not have the possibility to carry out either, but she was happy to look at going foreward.

A mental list was used for the client to create some of the things she would prefer to modify. She realises that she actually is on the incorrect course and involves understand that by accepting support from the educational assistance worker and Foundation research manager she might be able to change her course to the one which will be pitched at an increased level to accomplish business studies and accounts. She likewise realises if she experienced toned her behaviour down at school going back few weeks prior to the end of term, she’d not have been expelled[RZ30] and could have done her exams at school instead of giving up her 9 GCSE’s despite the fact that an alternative solution school was offered for her to take her exams. Her estimated grades had been typically B’s and C’s.

3 sessions – Llisa appears agitated, feeling she’s to no choice but to come. options given[RZ31].

Fears of exclusion, no qwualifications, failure[RZ32]

The counsellor gave aAssurances that given everything is confidential with the exception of disclosures to child protection agencies, or in the case of imminent harm to self and others. The counsellor also eExplained counselling is certainly not a prescription; n, she not does not need to come, your choice will come to be hers, no implications with or from college or university staff[RZ33].

By telling her storey at the place[RZ34] she’s more insight in to the concerns she faced. She sees herself as useful, hardworking and a good communicator.

The model of the experienced helper is explained considerably more fully to clients

Part of the procedure within the model used. Learnt basic top features of model for focus, course, instruction interactions with peears[RZ35].

Stage 1 – Step 1 1 Tthe storey

Client tells her storey which can be facilitated by me using probes;, this encourages your client to provide detailed information

about herself. This enables client to understand her situation, so as she can appear at what has to be done to control it.

Goal setting – What carry out I really want?

Step 1b – Blind spot

Lisa is helped to recognize signifcicant blind locations about herself so as she can develop innovative perspectives in moving foreward.

This is used to break through areas that stop Llisa from finding herself and her situation[RZ36].

Step 1c Cchoosing right problem to function onn.

Lisa has many complications, I hHelped her work on problems that can make a substantial difference in her existence. Your client is encouraged and backed in focusing on her problems.

The questions[RZ37] support Llisa to consider her future. Lisa discovers there are numerous items she wants; there is normally a , right training course for her, the one that she is interested in and can love. She can enjoy bBetter relationships with peers and personnel. She can enjoy tTime for herself and her mom.

Lisa was fFurther encouraged to look at requirements and prioritise them. Overall she needs to feel she is reaching academically, making progress in relationships with family members, and she want to change her impression – “end up being a girly girl..

Setting priorities support her to think about how precisely she might obtain them. I then helped her to explore and clarify her priorities. Tthis is done by asking her how would she find out she is achieving, what would it look like. The sort of course is after that explored in the regions of accountancy and performing arts and which one would be more ideal for her demands and wants, and by. looking at which one is even more practicael and achievable.

Stage 3 Producing action strategies


At the beginning of counselling, mentoring support group function was presented to Lisa. This support was offered again to client[RZ38]. She breaks through some blind locations, getting a better knowledge of and prioriitising her needs, aswell as. eExploring what she must do to receive what she would like. Lisa talks more about her hoped for ambitions prioritising accountancy, making contact with the college guidance employee to see what she’d need to get onto a training course. On being an celebrity, it was determined by the consumer that she would need to attend sage university or the undertaking arts course at college. We explored each profession, looking at pay, reliability, enjoyability, the possibility that it would possibly help form good character, as very well as career endurance. Accountancy required priority, coming out on top in Lisas evaluation. This also linked in to the fact that your client loves and excels in maths and possesses experienced accounts at school., Armed with this information, the customer contacted her personal tutor and foundations manager. She put her circumstance forward to them them both to be able to become transferred onto an accountancy or business studies program with administration. Giving the client space to get this done contributed to her empowerment.

The mentoring group consisted of eight 8 students, 16 – 18 years of age. This offered students a safe destination to explore her feelings about her human relationships and her body impression. She Lisa bravely asked “Ddo your moms help you with your hair and make up? Ttalk to you about boys?” The questions produced very much conversing over two sessions. Due to the group, work the hair, beauty and holistic remedy departments were approached. Consumer wanted to be considered a gfirly girl, which intended she wanted assist in knowing how to create her locks, and to apply put make-up on. Sessions for a course of holistic therapy to greatly help with stress were organized;. these treatments helped her to physically find herself in evaluation to whathow she experienced imagined within her personal mind.

By being truly a valued person in the every week group, the client determined she was able to receive support along with give it, departing her feeling empowered. Being action[RZ39] in her therapy has got allowed her to concentrate on her course, career potential customers, and image, which leads to improved personal conduct, romantic relationship with peers, users of personnel and mother, thereby. rReducing the anger and occasionally hate she sensed for herself and resentment towards her mother.

Client Lisa eventually moves from the group, as she feels less angry and stressed. Although client she may own benefited from staying for just one or two more sessions, the end of session analysis was that the client felt that she got sufficiently improved and wanted to withdraw; therefore the helping process had served its goal (. Waehler and Lenox (1994)). Therefore Hher relationships are more successful and enjoyable; she is. sensing better about herself as she knows some of the feelingss and sights of her peers because they saw her . hHow she was and how she can be. by using a connextios[RZ40] worker client has been helped to connection her must her mother taking one step at the same time. Lisa still struggled sometimes with her anger, lashing out verbally before anyone “could hurt.assault her first[RZ41].


Ongoing evaluation occurs at the end of each session. This is to prevent failure as much as possible (. Mash and Hunsley (1993[RZ42]). )). Early detection of anything going wrong will hopefully get detected[RZ43].


Model assessment to goal setting to strategy production to implementation. Not strataeight foreward and incredibly inflexible. Not a session by program approach[RZ44].


MARK: 2:2 Superior. The student has a good grasp of the idea but struggles signifigantly in expressing the thoughts. I would recommend that the college student cut down the length of the first half of the paper. The exploration of the qualified helper model is just a little meandering and unfocused. Trimming this section and so that it is more efficient allows the student to expand the research study, as the evaluation and conclusion sections are not adequate. The case study is amazing and germane. The college student should also take care to consider my ideas and edits as a way to boost his or her tag.

Reference and Bibliography

Arkowitz, H (1997) Integrative Theories of Therapy. In P. L. Wachtel & S. B. Messr (Eds), Theories of Psychotherapy: Origins and Evelution (pp. 227-228). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Egan G The Skilled Helper 1988, (p7-8)

Egan, G. The Skilled Helper, 3rd edition

Egan (1990:62)

Dryden, Windy (ed) 1987, Individual Remedy in Britain, Harper and Row, London

Lazarus, A. A., Beutler, L.E., & Norcross, J.C. (1992). The Future of Technical Eclecticism Psychotherapy, 29(1), 11-20

Lazarus, A.A (1996). The Utility and futility of Merging Treatments in Psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3(1), 59-68.

Mash and Hunsley (1993)

Mearns & Thorne, 1988, P1

Nelson-Jones, 1999, (p.118)

Waehler and Lenox (1994[RZ47])


[RZ1]This sentence doesn’t make sense.

[RZ2]Not a entire sentence. What did you want to say here?


[RZ4]Who renamed these stages?


[RZ6]Did you intend to put a quote here?

[RZ7]Which writer – you?

[RZ8]Looks like an incomplete thought right here – don’t neglect to load this in.



[RZ11]juvinate? What did you signify to say here?

[RZ12]Why did you do it again the same quote?

[RZ13]Letting go of what?

[RZ14]This is not a complete sentence.

[RZ15]Also not a complete sentence. Check your work extensively for sentence fragments.

[RZ16]Attending what?

[RZ17]What is “this”?

[RZ18]Why the all caps?

[RZ19]Sentence fragment.

[RZ20]Do you should explain each of these three briefly?

[RZ21]What is meant to go here? You left a major blank space.

[RZ22]Sentence fragment.


[RZ24]Is this actually authentic that there’s little research in existence?

[RZ25]So given these pitfalls, what explains this current tendency to use integrative methods?

[RZ26]Who said this – her headmaster?

[RZ27]This is interesting – why did Lisa feel like her deceased sister was the only person she liked if Lisa never met her? And just why did Lisa feel liked by a sister she never really had?

[RZ28]This is also very interesting – someone who fights constantly yet has a helpful, giving side.

[RZ29]Seems like acting is definitely diametrically opposed to accounting – you may want to explore.

[RZ30]Wait – earlier you explained that Lisa was provided counselling as an alternative to expulsion. Was she in fact expelled or no?


[RZ32]Expand this thought properly.

[RZ33]Is this authentic? Didn’t the college or university order her to visit counselling?

[RZ34]At what place?

[RZ35]All of the sentence fragments need to be expanded into proper sentences. Your research study can’t simply be a smattering of incomplete thoughts.

[RZ36]Such as?

[RZ37]What questions?


[RZ39]“Being actions?” This doesn’t seem sensible.


[RZ41]Verify and complete this estimate from Lisa.

[RZ42]Isn’t the purpose of protecting against failure rather obvious?

[RZ43]This section is a little flimsy. You might want to expand.

[RZ44]Again, a bunch of sentence fragments that need to be extended. This conclusion can be flimsy and thin.



[RZ47]This bibliography is incomplete; these references need to be fully sourced.

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